最近读了Refugee Stories – In Their Own Words这个本书，感触颇深。在书中的最后一章，介绍了澳大利亚的移民演变历史。我将它翻译出来，分享给大家。我本人不是专业的翻译人员，如果翻译错误，敬请谅解。
澳大利亚可以被称之为最成功的多元文化国家。 自第二次世界大战启，大约有800万移民定居澳大利亚，其中包括大约一百万难民。 在过去的七十年里，尽管有些移民不能被定义为难民，但很多移民来到澳大利亚是因为要逃离贫困，战后紧缩政策或者政治压迫。
Migration Council of Australia研究指出，澳大利亚移民中介雇主雇佣大约160万工作人员，移民产业将向澳大利亚经济贡献16亿澳元。
Scanlon Foundation Mapping Social Cohesion的调查发现，在过去的数十年里，澳大利亚保持着高水准的社会融合和对多元文化的支持。这项调查的作者，莫纳什大学教授Andrew Markus表示91%的住在澳大利亚的居民对澳大利亚拥有归属感，其中89%的人对澳大利亚的生活方式感到骄傲。他提到，83%的人表示多元文化对澳大利亚是有益的 – 根据之前的调查，66%的人认为澳大利亚应该在学习外来文化，传统，文化做更多的努力。同时，74%的人认为来自不同的文化背景的人相处融洽。在澳洲人口中，超过两成的澳洲人在家会说除了英语外的第二语言。澳洲人有5%出生于英国，2.5%出生于新西兰，2.3%出生于中国，2.1%出生于印度。
对比之下，大多数首批澳大利亚移民并非自愿来到澳大利亚定居：他们大多是从英国被驱逐出境的罪犯，最后定居在新南威尔士。 截止19世纪中叶，绝大多数移民来自英国和爱尔兰。 直到1851年，澳大利亚西南威尔士的Orange附近发现金矿，之后的淘金潮开始改变了澳大利亚的面貌。 从1851年到1860年，出国60万移民抵达，他们绝大多数来时英国，其中10%来自欧洲其他地区，7%来自中国。
19世纪40年代后期，因为爱尔兰大饥荒，大约30000移民从爱尔兰移民澳大利亚。最终导致澳大利亚的内地发展，为此澳大利亚从印度，阿富汗引进2000名骆驼夫。19世纪末期，澳大利亚引进大约50000名来自瓦努阿图，所罗门群岛的居民从事在昆士兰州从事农业生产。 在所谓的黑鸟(black birding)操作下，他们大多数被迫来到澳洲，最终在澳大利亚形成了社区。
1901年，在澳大利亚的6个移民自治领完成联邦制，新的联邦政府宣布澳大利亚属于白人国家。1901年澳大利亚移民法修正案，被称之为‘澳大利亚白人政策法案’；该法案被用来刺激非白人移民远离澳大利亚。 在这项法案中，存在一个臭名昭著的50单词测试，这项测试中的50个单词可以来自欧洲不同国家的语言 – 澳大利亚官方可以选择任何欧洲语言的50个单词，移民申请者只有在通过这项测试后才能在澳洲定居。日本海女，马来，菲律宾船员可以得到这项测试的豁免。但是有数以千计的拥有澳大利亚，中国，叙利亚和印度背景的再次入境申请者被迫申请豁免。
在一战期间，移民申请暂时中止，然而在20世纪20年代，超过34000的移民抵达澳大利亚-其中三分之二来自英国，其余来自希腊，意大利和南斯拉夫。从1929年开始的大萧条，由于失业率的暴增，人民对外来移民再次产生敌意。因此，20时间30年代，移民数量急剧下降。在第二次世界大战前，由于针对于德国和奥地利犹太人的政治氛围恶化，澳大利亚同意从欧洲接收15000犹太移民。 然而，在1939前，只有5000名犹太移民抵达澳大利亚，其余犹太移民再也没有机会逃离。二战结束之后，澳大利亚采取了比较温和的移民策略，接收在International Dispatch Persons Scheme之下的难民，到1954年，澳大利亚共接收超过170000来自欧洲的难民，其中有超过17000的犹太难民。
1948年，议会通过澳大利亚国籍立法，在此之前，澳大利亚人属于英国国民。 然而，澳大利亚倾向于接收英国移民。从二十世纪40年代起，澳大利亚政府为帮助英国移民澳大利亚而确立的“十英镑移民” 制度。然而，二战后的环境促使澳大利亚政府转变对外来移民申请者的态度，为此，澳大利亚进入了多元文化的时代。1943年，澳大利亚全民调查显示，40%的澳大利亚人认为因为劳动力的缺乏，今后应该采取无限制移民的策略。 澳大利亚第一任移民部长Arthur Calwell推动了澳大利亚针对未来国家发展的战略选择-“人口增长或人口凋零”。此后，澳大利亚开始接受超过30个欧洲国家的移民，包括荷兰，奥地利，比利时，西班牙，西德。 然而，知道而是二十世纪70年代，移民的主力军来自英国，意大利和希腊。与此同时，新的家庭团聚政策允许大约300000多来自东欧的移民在澳大利亚定居。从1949年到1979年，有超过100000名来自30个不同国家的移民为联邦政府Snowy Hydro的水电站工程出力。
1958年，臭名昭著听写测试被废除，也标志着澳大利亚白人移民政策的终结。 到1960年，在一千万澳大利亚人中，9% 的人口来自非英国后裔，绝大多数来自意大利，德国，荷兰，希腊和波兰。 从1966年开始，针对非欧洲裔移民的限制放宽，更多的非欧洲裔移民进入澳大利亚。截止1971年，澳大利亚发生了巨大的变化，每三个澳洲人中，都有一个是移民或是移民的后代。1973年，工党首相Gough Whitlam宣布，任何族裔的移民在获得澳大利亚永久居留权后的三年就可以申请澳大利亚国籍。
在此之后，由于越南和柬埔寨的冲突，一大波印尼中国后裔抵达澳大利亚。 超过2000名印尼华裔在20世纪70年代后期乘船抵达，但在80000多名印尼华裔永久居民中，绝对大多数在经过澳大利亚官方的审核后，乘飞机从马来西亚和泰国抵达澳大利亚。20世纪90年代后期，更多的从中东，斯里兰卡逃离的难民乘船抵达澳大利亚，其中大部分是通过蛇头偷渡。 澳大利亚政府将这些非法难民视为“非法进入”。至此， 澳洲政府用来审核难民申请人海外拘押中心，长期被联合国和国际人权组织所诟病，但这项海外拘押中心政策一直受到澳洲国内两大政党的支持。
与此同时，澳大利亚向合法移民和“官方”难民敞开大门。 在过去数年中，每年都有超过190000新的外来人员进入澳大利亚，其中包括12000到18000名难民。 持有临时签证的人士包括国际留学生，和457工作签证持有者。 在2015年，针对在叙利亚和伊拉克的地区冲突，澳大利亚作为回应，接收12000来自叙利亚和伊拉克的难民。
REFUGEES AND MIGRANTS IN AUSTRALIA – HOW WE GOT HERE
Australia can make a legitimate claim to being the most successful multicultural society in the world. Since World War II around eight million migrants have come to Australia, including almost one million refugees. Though technically not refugees, many of the migrants who have come here in the past seventy years were fleeing poverty, post war austerity or political repression.
At 26 per cent, we have the highest proportion of people born overseas than any other high-immigration nation. And that includes New Zealand (23 per cent), Canada (22 per cent), the United States (14 percent) and the United Kingdom (13 per cent).
Only Saudi Arabia has a higher overseas-born population; but foreigners are permitted to work there for periods but are never offered permanent residency or citizenship.
Research by the Migration Council of Australia says that migrant business owners employ more than 1.4 million people and migration is set to contribute $1.6 trillion to Australia’s economy by 2050.
The Scanlon Foundation Mapping Social Cohesion survey has found that over the past decade Australia has maintained high levels of social cohesion and support of multiculturalism.
The survey’s author Monash University’s Professor Andrew Markus says 91% of people living in Australia professed a sense of belonging to the nation with 89 per cent expressing pride in our way of life.
He said 83 per cent believed multiculturalism had been a good thing for Australia – in keeping with the results of previous surveys – and 66 per cent said Australia should do more to learn about the culture and customs of different ethnic and cultural groups in the country.
Meanwhile, 74 per cent agreed that in their local areas ‘people from different nationalities or ethnic groups get on well together’.
More than one in five Australians speaks a language other than English at home. The most common countries of birth after Australia were England (five per cent of population) and New Zealand (2.5 per cent), followed by China (2.3 per cent) and India (2.1 per cent).
Since the mid-2000s, Chinese and Indian arrivals have outpaced arrivals from the UK and migration has replace births as the driver of population growth.
So how did all this come about? Looking at all the evidence, not by accident.
The post-World War II Australia government decided the nation must ‘population or perish’ and so, in 1945, The Department of Immigration was established. Since then, seven million permanent migrants have settled here.
And in 1948 – Seventy years ago this year – two things happened. The Immigration Act was changed effectively allowing for the first time non-Anglo Celtic migrants to settle permanently. And Australian citizenship was created – until then Australia had been ‘British subject’.
It was not quite the end of the ‘White Australia Policy’, but it was a start and the beginnings of the modern, non-discriminatory immigration system we know today.
DNA evidence suggests the first people to migrate to Australian continent most likely came from South-East Asian between 40,000 and 60,000 years ago, according to data from the old Department of Immigration.
Estimates of the Aboriginal population before European settlement range between 300,000 and 1.5 million: some 600 tribes speaking more than 200 distinct languages.
Today Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people account for 2.8 per cent of the country’s 24 million people.
Most of the first modern migrants to Australia were unwilling arrivals: convicts from Britain sent to the penal colony of New South Wales. Until the mid-1800s, the population was dominated by British and Irish people. But the discovery of gold near Orange, NSW, in 1851 triggered a gold rush that changed the face of Australia.
Between 1851 and 1860, more than 600,000 migrants arrived: most were from the UK but around 10 per cent came from elsewhere in Europe and seven per cent from China.
Xenophobic hostility toward the newcomers focused on the Chinese, who were regarded as a threat to wages and employment, according to the Department of Immigration’s history. The tension resulted in anti-Chinese riots which resulted in several deaths, leading to the colonies’ first restrictions on immigration, targeting Chinese people.
The potato famine in Ireland in the late 1840s saw come 30,000 Irish migrants settle in Australia, and the push to develop Australia’s outback led to a government decision to bring in 2,000 cameleers from India and Afghanistan.
Some 50,000 people, mostly men from Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands, were brought to Australia in the late 1800s to work as indentured labours in agriculture in Queensland. They were mostly brought against their will, under the so-called ‘black-birding’ practices, many stayed on and built a community.
At federation in 1901, three million people in the six colonies became the nation of Australia, and the new country’s parliament defined it as a white man’s nation.
The Immigration Restriction Act 1901 became known as the ‘White Australia Policy’ and was aimed at discouraging non-white migrants. It included a notorious dictation test of 50 words in a European language – immigration officials could choose any language they pleased – which applicants had to pass to migrate to Australia.
Japanese pearl divers and Malay and Filipino boat crew were exempt from the test. But there were thousands of Australian of Chinese, Syrian and Indian backgrounds who were forced to apply for documents to exempt them from the test if they travelled overseas and tried to re-enter Australia.
Immigration came to halt during WWI but in the 1920s more than 340,000 immigrants arrived – two-thirds of them assisted migrants from Britain, and small numbers of Greek, Italians and Yugoslavs.
The Great Depression, which began in 1929, saw unemployment rates soar and public attitudes towards immigrants turn hostile. Immigration nosedived through the 1930s largely because of the depression.
In the years before WWII, as the political climate toward Jews in Germany and Austria worsened, Australia agreed to accept 15,000 Jewish refugees from Europe. But just 5000 arrived in 1939 before Jews in Europe could no longer escape.
After the war, Australia appeared to take a more generous approach, agreeing to take refugees under the international Displaced Persons Scheme and admitting more than 170,000 Europeans by 1954. More than 17,000 of them were Jews.
In 1948, parliament legislated to create Australian Citizenship – before that, all Australians were British subjects. But Australia still actively sought British migrants in preference to other nationalities, with ventures like the assisted passage scheme known as the ‘ten-pound pom’ beginning in the late 1940s and running for almost 30 years.
However, the post-war environment saw a significant shift in Australia’s attitude to migrants and set it on the path to multiculturalism. A national poll taken in 1943 found 40 per cent of Australians supported ‘unlimited migration’, driven in part by a critical labour shortage. The country’s first-ever immigration minister Arthur Calwell promoted the idea that Australia needed to ‘populate or perish’.
Australia began accepting migrants from more than 30 European countries, including Netherlands, Austria, Belgium, Spain and West Germany. But the largest national groups of arrivals after British were Italians and Greek until the early 1970s.
A new family reunion policy saw some 30,000 arrivals from Eastern European nations join relatives in Australia.
More than 100,000 migrants from 30 different countries worked on the Snowy Hydro project, a hydroelectricity scheme that began in 1949 and completed in the 1970s.
The beginning of the end of the White Australia Policy came in 1958 with the abolition of the infamous dictation test. By 1960, Australia’s population was ten million and around nine per cent of the population were of non-British origin, mostly Italians, Germans, Dutch, Greeks and Poles. Other restrictions on non-European migration were relaxed from 1966 and the number of arrivals started to increase accordingly.
Australia began to change rapidly. By 1971, one in three people living in Australia was a migrant or the child of migrant.
In 1973, Labour Prime Minister Gough Whitlam changed the law to allow all migrants regardless of race or ethnicity to apply for Australian citizenship after three years of residence and his colourful immigration minister AI Grassby declared the White Australia Policy dead.
In 1975, racial discrimination was made illegal and also in 1970s, new humanitarian or refugee intakes saw the settlement of Lebanese and Cypriot people.
This was followed by a significant wave of Indochinese arrivals displaced by the Vietnamese and Cambodian conflicts. More than 2,000 Indochinese refugees landed in boats on Australian shores in the late 1970s, but the majority of 80,000 Indochinese permanent migrants came by air after they were formally processed by Australian officials at refugee camps in Malaysia and Thailand.
From the late 1990s, increasing numbers of asylum seekers fleeing conflict in the Middle East and Sri Lanka arrived in Australia by boat, mostly organised by people smugglers. Australia’s government cracked down on what it called ‘unauthorised’ arrivals. Its offshore detention policy, designed to deter asylum seekers, has been criticised by the UN and human right groups but the policy continues to have bipartisan support.
At the same time, Australia has opened the door to migrants and ‘official’ refugees. In each of the past few years, more than 190,000 new arrivals have settled in Australia, including between 12000 – 18000 refugees. Temporary arrivals including international students and those on 457 work visas were around 400,000 in 2016 – 17. There was also a special intake of 12,000 Syrian and Iraqi refugees announced in 2015 in response to the conflict there.
Since the 1980s, the focus of Australia’s Immigration policy has been on selecting migrants who fit much-needed skills criteria, along with family visas.